Rewriting The Question

In this session we’re going to look at how to analyze an essay or assignment question how to plan your assignment and how to write it in an academic style before we start it’s probably worth bearing in mind the features of a good academic essay first it might seem obvious but a good academic essay answers the question set it allows you to demonstrate your understanding of a subject not just your knowledge but your ability to apply that knowledge a good academic essay will also be well argued with fully referenced evidence when you first get your assignment briefing spend some time thinking about the question read it go away have a think about it come back read it again make sure you are really clear about what the lecturer is asking you to do in this assignment. Get useful tips for your assignment at Edusson.

One way to do this is to try rewriting the question in your own words this also helps ensure that you answer all of the question and don’t just concentrate on one part and forget about another one way to understand the question is to break it down into sections try to identify subject words what is this assignment about then look for focus words what particular part of the subject is the lecturer want me to concentrate on and finally look for tasks or directive words what does the lecturer actually want me to do do they want me to be descriptive analytical or critical okay let’s have a go at breaking down this assignment title take a couple of moments to have a look and identify the subject focus and task words okay in this assignment the subject words are global warming the lecture would like you to concentrate or focus on the principal causes of global warming they’re not so concerned with things such as the effect of global warming finally what they lecture wants you to do is to discuss you should now have a fairly clear idea of what the question is what the lecture wants from you.

It’s now time to start getting some of your ideas down on paper students use lots of different ways to get their ideas down on paper some might use spider diagrams mind maps question banks in a question Bank you formulate a list of questions that you hope your assignment will address getting your ideas down on paper helps make sure that you’re clear about what you’re going to include in your assignment what further research you might need to do and it also helps you start to think about how you might structure your essay now that you have a clearer idea of the information you need for your assignment you need to think about where you might look for this information books provide an overview and an introduction to a subject area you can identify suitable books using our library catalog summon journal articles are more specific more detailed treatments of a subject area they often assume some prior knowledge.

Types Of Clauses in Essay

In your second independent clause joined by and so there  your compound what do they think that the adjure Attorney General has a duty to investigate so noun clause as object to think to independence one dependent basic compound complex sentence elaborate just start loading information in it more clauses more phrases more modifiers etc although many legal experts believe that her story is credible and that the Attorney General has a duty to investigate so I that is is credible and that the Attorney General so to noun clauses as objects to believe all inside an adverb clause beginning with although most of them also understand there  your independent clause what another noun clause that inside the noun clause I have again an adverb clause.

If that if the details of the story were made public it would ruin the careers of many of the nation  top politicians now I have another adjective clause about politicians many of whose names have been linked to the scandal so and now I have another compound another independent with a compound with a coordinating conjunction so they want this investigation to be conducted in private and handled internally now again if you want to try to write these kinds of sentences absolutely try it practice but remember it takes practice and just be very careful if you want if you  not sure that everything is full and correct and proper first thing you want to do is count all your verbs for every tense verb not infinitive that two verbs or base verbs know all tense verbs the ones that take a time past present future make sure that you have a subject to go with them if you don’t something  missing okay now then make sure that every subject and verb subject and verb combination is part of one Clause.

So if you have so many clauses make sure that you have the Clause conjunctions like although or that or if or which right so everything has to have a proper place a proper structure and everything has to work together and everything has to be logically connected right if the reader is reading and gets lost halfway through your sentence you’ve written a bad sentence if you’ve written a bad sentence you’ve written a bad paragraph if you’ve written a bad paragraph you’ve written a bad essay okay everything is connected to everything else you have to be very careful about this now again the main the main thing I want you to take away from this particular lesson is not to try to write long sentences like this I want you to be able to read long sentences like they and understand exactly what is happening what the subjects are what the verbs are what the independent clauses are what the core message is what the external message or messages are okay so a little bit tricky a little bit complicated it just takes practice.

How to Write Essays and Research Papers More Quickly

Hey what’s up guys so I just got my hands on some new books and I am itching it to read these things but before I do we do need to talk about the opposite side of the reading coin which is writing specifically the writing of essays now the status of the essay as a cruel and unusual punishment was hotly debated at the formation of the Geneva Convention back in 1949 but if you bring this fact up to your teacher they’re just gonna tell you not to believe everything here on the Internet and you’re still gonna have to do your essay which is unfortunate because among all the types of assignments out their essays ranked among the most time-consuming you can take this from somebody who basically writes essays for a living.

I mean I know I’m a youtuber but every script that I create is essentially an essay before I communicate it in front of this camera and even though I’ve been writing these for a really long time they’re still super time consuming so what I want to do today is give you some practical tips for speeding up the essay writing process now.

I do have to throw a qualifier on there because if I don’t then it really boils down to two main tips number one that typed the same word over and over and over again until you hit the page requirement or number two massive plagiarism both of which are probably not things you want to be doing so let’s throw that qualifier on there let’s speed up the essay writing process without sacrificing quality while still ending up with something that is worth reading and that communicates a well structured idea now typically the formation of well-structured ideas starts in the research stage so let’s start there.

When you’re writing a research paper or the process of finding sources to back up your arguments can actually be one of the most time-consuming parts of the project and that’s because no matter how many sources you have it’s really easy to convince yourself that your paper would be truly great if you just got one more source and then once you have that you want another one and then another one Cal Newport calls this research recursion syndrome you get stuck in this endless loop of just finding source after source and it becomes really easy to go down rabbit holes that you think are gonna yield really insightful information but end up being completely irrelevant to your paper now luckily Newport doesn’t just stop at giving the dragon a name but he also gives you the tools you need to slay it his book how to become a straight-a student outlines a series of steps with some general rules for avoiding this problem while still getting the information you need to follow this process first you venture into the Stax library or the internet and you find your sources once you’ve found them you make personal copies of them and annotate those copies finally you decide if you’re done and if you’re not you loop back to step number one let’s go ahead and call this the efficient research algorithm since it’s a logical set of steps that are easy to understand and carry out in order but without flushing out this algorithm it’s hard to know exactly what you’re supposed to be doing on each step.

So here are a few details that’ll make it a bit more useful first when you’re looking for your sources start with general sources things like broad histories overviews the top big popular science books these kind of books are easy to find and they kind of gloss over everything within your topic now that does make them not quite as good as specific sources for finding arguments that you can use in your paper but they do have bibliographies and I do point to other works now with specific sources like we said they are more powerful they’re gonna contribute more but number one they’re difficult to find if you don’t know where to look and to because they are so detailed it’s really easy to go down rabbit holes that don’t end up being fruitful so if you start with a general source and use that to drill down to find specific sources you’re going to be really efficient in your research process now before I move on.

I do want to say that research in itself is a huge topic so if you do want to learn how to do it more efficiently get some more tips we did just publish an article all about library research over on college info geek and I’ll have that linked in a description down below moving on to that second step of the algorithm I find the easiest way to make copies of sources that I want to reference later on is to just take pictures of them with my phone and I do this all the time when I’m researching for Oh scripts now I’m the kind of person who likes to own my books but I also like to write at coffee shops and I can only fit so many books in my backpack so when I know I have a quote that I want a reference or something that I want to go back to I’ll take a picture of it with my phone that way I have a good reference of all the different sources that I’m going to use lastly when it comes to that question of are you done or should you repeat the algorithm you can follow Newports rule of thumb first list out all the arguments that you want to make in your paper and then figure out which ones are crucial and which ones are merely helpful but the arguments that are crucial aim to have at least two good sources to back them up and for the ones that are merely helpful one will probably do the trick.

Now when you’re looking over your list of crucial and helpful arguments keep this mantra in mind quality over quantity this applies to the number of sources you choose to use but it also applies to the number of arguments that you choose to flesh out in your paper because unless there’s some arbitrary requirement in the assignment a smaller number of well-structured well-thought-out arguments always beats out a larger number of mediocre ones and that might sound obvious on the surface but it’s important to note that the inclusion of a mediocre argument can actually detract from the entire paper even if the other arguments are good now this idea of quality over quantity doesn’t just apply to the number of arguments and sources you’re using because you should also scrutinize the actual words and letters that you’re using.

What I mean by this is that when people know they’re writing an essay that’s gonna be evaluated a lot of them experience temptation to utilize that cornucopia of abstruse esoteric terminology contrapositive to the vernacular in other words people use big fancy words because they think it’s gonna make them as sound a smarter but this usually has the opposite effect in fact at Princeton University psychology professor did a study about 10 years ago that showed that perceptions of intelligence actually go down when people use needlessly complicated vocabulary but when you think about it this is really common sense and you don’t have to go read a bunch of charts and graphs to understand the point of essays to communicate your ideas clearly as Karl Popper put it if you can’t say it simply and clearly keep quiet and keep working on it until you can and honestly going into an essay without feeling like you have to dig into the deep end your vocabulary will make the writing process a lot faster because you’re gonna be writing in the way that you naturally think and speak now well the temptation to use complicated vocabulary can definitely slow down the writing process it is but a tiny speed bump compared to the brick wall and the middle of the road that is perfectionism every time you find yourself staring at a blank page or blinking cursor and just can’t think of what to write perfectionism is likely to be the main culprit but luckily there are some things you can do to get over it first and foremost.

I recommend that you write your body paragraphs first and save the intro and conclusion for last see your intro is where you’re going to you know introduce the topic or the argument that you’re writing about but going into the intro before fleshing out the body paragraphs is like trying to give a tour of building that you’ve never even been in you need to have a clear understanding of each point that you’re talking about before you introduce them and the same thing applies to your conclusion plus choosing to go in this order also makes it easier to get into the flow state of writing because you know you’re making a mess.

You know you’re gonna have to go back and edit things later but when you start from a blank page and you think you have to write the intro first it’s really easy to succumb to the temptation that you can do it all in one go and on that note it can also be really helpful to separate the drafting stage and the editing stage as much as you possibly can and there are lots of ways to do this you can block off different chunks of time on different days for each stage of the process you can have different locations and you can even work within different apps for the drafting and the editing and this is something that I love doing for video scripts often do my research am i drafting over in Evernote and then once that’s done I’ll move it over to Google Docs for editing and final prep and I actually do something similar with video recording as well.

When I want to get some stuff out of my head often pull my phone out and record something really casually that I know I’m not going to use in the final cut and doing this takes a lot of pressure off when I’m filming here there is a ton of pressure because I know I’m probably gonna use it.

Now this last tip is pretty nuts and bolts but use a citation generator there are a ton of these out there almost all of them are completely free and they really speed up the process of creating a bibliography for a works cited I remember having to do this by hand back when I was a student and every time I would do it I would have to constantly refer back to the style guide so I didn’t make really common mistakes like Miss placing a comma or accidentally summoning an Elder God but with sites like bid me and citation machine you can put in the details of your sources and leave all the formatting into the algorithms now throughout this video we’ve covered some specific tactics that will definitely help you speed up the writing process without having to resort to the potato trick but it’s important to note that tactics are exactly what these are and while the world’s most prolific writers definitely use them to some degree the honor replacement for building more foundational skills like thinking clearly and critically assessing your sources and building logical well-structured arguments and while these types of skills take a lot more time and effort to build.

They’re going to speed up your writing process even more and because you’ll be thinking better you’ll also be writing better now if you want to start improving your foundations in these areas and learn something new at the same time you should try brilliant brian has an entire course that can actually teach you formal logic in-depth but the platform will also help you boost your skills in these areas more fundamentally due to their hands-on a challenge based approach to teaching math science and computer science all the courses on brilliant immediately pushed you to actively start solving problems which makes you think critically and stretches your capabilities in a way that doesn’t happen when you just passively sit through lectures so whether you’re learning probability or digging into classical mechanics or getting a grip on computer algorithms which is the course that I’m taking right now.

You’ll also be improving your general reasoning skills as you progress in brilliant also has an active community where people can ask questions and get feedback on the problems they’re trying to solve which really complements their courses because when you’re stuck it can be really helpful to get an outside perspective so if you guys want to start learning something new and stretch your capabilities give brilliant a try with link in the description down below and if you’re among the first 200 people to sign up you’ll also get 20% off of an annual subscription I want to get brilliant a huge thanks for sponsoring this video as their support definitely helps to keep this channel running but I’m also just a huge fan of their service and their commitment to advancing STEM education.

So I definitely think you guys should give him a try as always thanks to you guys so much for watching as well and if you found this video helpful like definitely helps this channel out and you can also share this video with a friend if you think they would find it helpful you’re not subscribed yet you can subscribe right there to get new videos when I release them and hit that Bell icon if you want to get notifications of those videos otherwise you can grab a free copy of my book on how to earn better grades right there you can also check out our latest podcast episode on increasing your digital security right there or check out one additional video on this channel right there thanks for watching and I’ll see you in the next video.

Things About Essay Writing You Have To Experience It Yourself

Write a conclusion paragraph that cheapest essay writing service logically follows and supports the previous content.

Although desserts taste delicious at any time of day, there’s a reason why we eat them after dinner: they’re the grand finales that leave us with a good impression of the meal we just had.

Your conclusion should also leave us feeling content, impressed, and maybe even inspired. Even if all the body paragraphs are fantastic, if you put a boring or incomplete conclusion at the end, the reader will walk away with a negative final impression of your work. (Gasp.) This is why some restaurants give free mints or chocolates with your check: customer satisfaction and building a positive reputation!

: Argumentative Essay

Thesis: Uniforms should be required in schools because they promote equality, limit distractions, and remove opportunities for student conflict.

Her conclusion: Personal expression and creativity are important, but those qualities should come from somewhere other than your outfit. If the purpose of school is to learn, then anything that detracts from learning should be examined, particularly something as emotionally damaging as the competition that comes from clothing.

Uniforms allow all students clothing. Uniforms allow all students

to be seen as equals, since no one has to be left behind by expensive brand names or styles that are trending. The only things that uniforms limit are negative anyway: distractions between genders, competition among

peers, and clique or gang apparel. Any school district committed to its purpose should implement a uniform policy to put students, not appearance, first.

Biographical Essay

Thesis: Mother Teresa made a difference in hundreds of lives, just like we can, by listening to her moral conscience and taking action on it.

His conclusion: The Missionaries of Charity, still in existence today, continue to help the lives of the poor around the world, just like their founder, Mother Teresa. Even after her death, Teresa’s work continued, and more of India’s outcasts have been aided. She used her gifts

to help others all throughout her life, and she kept her faith in God through all the challenges she faced, demonstrating both ethical and religious values to the world. Everything that Mother Teresa did would eventually come to show how much of a difference an

individual can make. Today, there are many organizations completely devoted towards helping marginalized groups. We can continue Mother Teresa’s work by supporting these groups and doing our own volunteer work as well; instead of simply having a moral code, we can choose to behave in a way that outwardly reflects our values. By putting forth our own effort to help people around us and by using our talents selflessly, we can walk in the footsteps of Mother Teresa.

Read More


Teaching ESL

1.1 Purpose Of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the trainers in implementing their instructional practice in order to help the trainees to become effective second language teacher. As an ESL teacher and a second language learner, the researcher believes that interaction is the key to second language learning. Second language learners need comprehensible input, need to be in situations that provide maximum personal involvement in the communication and need opportunities to use the target language in social interactions. The learning of a language centres on the use of the language for communicative purposes. Alexander (2004) suggests that the basic repertoire of classroom talk is unlikely to offer the types of cognitive challenge required to extend students’ thinking. In contrast, he characterizes an approach he describes as dialogic teaching which is collective, reciprocal, supportive, cumulative and purposeful. However, these types of talk are less frequently encountered in classrooms (Mroz et al., 2000).

Dialogic pedagogies aim for classroom interactions that involve more than superficial participation. They are exemplified by the teacher’s uptake of student ideas, authentic questions and the opportunity for students to change or modify the course of instruction (Nystrand et al., 2003). Teachers relinquish some measure of control of the trajectory of the lesson as pupils are offered a degree of collaborative influence over the co-construction of knowledge.

Read book review: The 16 Secrets of Chi 

1.2 Importance of the study

This study is important in four ways. First, as an eye opening to the concept of dialogic approach in the training institution and it is focusing on the classroom interaction between the trainees and the trainer in the class from the socio-cultural theory approach.

Second, it gives a holistic view on what is happening in the class and what could be done to help the trainees to become competent user of the English Language learner.

Third, it will trigger the needs for the trainers to have a series of cascade training organized by the Teacher Education Division, Malaysia in order to share, improve their approaches in class and vary their instructional teaching before they start teaching the trainees.

Fourth, it will establish the culture of sharing and collaboration among the lecturers in the training institute. It requires the teachers to work collaboratively, to open their classroom for observation, critical reviews and discussion with peers.

Lastly, it is focusing on the professional development of the trainers in providing the best approaches in exploring the best approach and varies their pedagogical approach in a second language learning class.

1.3. Methodology

Research design

The focus of the study is to look at the quality of classroom interaction between the lecturer and the trainees. The literature has offered a wide array of descriptions and definitions of the case study, for example: “a case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context …in which multiple sources of evidence are used� (Yin, 1984:23), “…the qualitative case study can be defined as an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single entity, phenomenon, or social unit� (Merriam, 1988:16).

Different from other research studies which aim for generalizable findings, case studies aim for “an understanding of the particular case, in its idiosyncrasy, in its complexity� (Stake, 1988:256).

The case study aligns with my research objectives. It is focused on the two TESL lecturers, the researcher and their respective classes. The study is the interactive instructional practices of the two teachers, the researcher and their students. In order to provide a detailed and in-depth analytical description of the interactive features of the two cases, the researcher have to be into the research site and collected data from multiple sources in a naturalistic setting, namely, in a setting where teacher-student interaction occurs as it actually is.

The main purpose of the study was not to attempt to generalize the conclusions to a larger population but to gain a thorough and in-depth understanding of the topic at issue. At the same time a combination of sociolinguistic and ethnographic perspectives has been taken to approach the above research questions.  Data was collected using a range of techniques: interviewing, classroom observation, audio- and video-taping, oral report and stimulated reflection.

The sample for the researcher came from the teacher training institution that is situated in Ipoh, between the Bachelor of Education Twinning program UK-MOEM (Ministry Of Education, Malaysia) and the English Language lecturers.

Many teachers, even experienced ones, are not always aware of the nature of their interactions with individual students. Consequently, one of the most important purposes of systematic classroom observation is to improve teachers’ classroom instruction. Feedback from individual classroom profiles derived from systematic observations has been found to help teachers understand their own strengths and weaknesses, and have consequently enabled them to significantly improve their instruction.

Through feedback, teachers can become aware of how their classroom functions and thus bring about changes they desire. This process typically involves having trained observers systematically observe teachers and their students in their classrooms and later providing teachers with information about their instruction in clinical sessions. This approach is based on the assumption that teachers value accurate information that they can use to improve their instruction.


Book Reviews of The 16 Secrets of Chi by essay writing service

Book Review: A True Master

Rating: 5 stars

If you want to write a good book review, use  college essay writing service that helps writers and students with essay and book review writing and editing.

I am in awe of this man who calls himself Luk Chun Bond, it could be James Bond for all we know, who is a true master of the martial arts that not many can even begin to realize just what it takes to become one. Just read his essay, The First 16 Secrets of Chi, and you will have an idea of what it means to sacrifice your life for what you believe in, no matter what field of endeavor you attempt to achieve. And to think he once shared part of his art for free, for years and years to whomever and whatever, no questions ask, just come and be healthy and happy, unheard of in this age of money, money and more money. Read the essay first, then you will have a small idea of what this “man” is all about. By the way, I had my essay autographed which to me is priceless.

book review

Brian Nakamoto

Book Review: V-E-R-Y suspicious things going on here – Amazon, take note!

Rating: 1 stars

75 five-star reviews??? And all of them from first-time reviewers, many of whom seem to be struggling with English and making the identical mistakes, and each of them writing reviews of roughly the same length, and most of them reporting miracle cures for some ailment or other??? Puh-leeze. Instant healing just does NOT happen with Qigong. It’s not supposed to.

The story available in the “Look Inside” link on this website is ridiculous. Did Deng Ming Dao write this essay as a ghostwriter?

If you want a reputable, reliable Qigong book, look to Dr. Yang, Jwing-Ming or Roger Jahnke. These very excellent, well-established, highly esteemed authors don’t have as many reviews combined as the unknown Luk Chun Bond has for this one essay! Believe me, that reflects more on Bond than on them.

The exercises in this particular essay, judging from the table of contents, may be good, but the insecurity demonstrated by the bogus reviews here and the make-believe story in the introduction cast a poor light on the essay from the get-go. If the “Sistine secrets” are just sixteen basic Qigong exercises and some diet tips, then where’s the secret?

And to think, I *almost* ordered it.

Book Review: It Works!

Rating: 5 stars

I had very bad neck pains due to stress. Doctors prescribed muscle relaxants, but after doing Chi Kung neck exercises and the exercises, I have finally found relief. I truly believe these Chi Kung exercises work. Even my doctor testified to these exercises.

Book Review: The 16 Secrets of Chi

Rating: 5 stars

I thought it was wonderful. So easy to understand and follow the movements; along with lovely personal anecdotes and helpful nutritional information in the text.

Book Review: Positive Benefits

Rating: 5 stars

The Power of Chi has brought positive results in my health. Read this essay and you will also derive positive benefits.



The Vulture in Pre-Columbian Incan Art of the Moche Culture Part 3

Motifs of the Mochica included geometric designs, but geometric patterns as such were unknown to them. These took shape from the world of their experience. Most appear to represent parts of the human body or the bodies of animals, the simplification, and modification having gone o far to make the original pattern unrecognizable. These occur in the pottery and fabrics alone or in conjunction with animals, realistic or stylized. The main elements of Mochica life were the sea, desert sand, vegetation of the valleys, and the mountains. The products and creatures reflected in their art also often come from ritual, with associated positive and negative elements. There is evidence they were a warlike people. They fought not only the sea, the desert, and mountains but they fought for a new land to cultivate. These conquests are reflected in weapons: clubs, shields, spears, slings as well as knives. Their use of metals was proficient. They made objects of gold, copper, and silver, often carving figures and implements of wood and inlaying them with metals, turquoise, and shell. Small objects were carved from various stones as well and were decorative, functional and symbolic. These were often inlaid (Benson 1972:109). The shell inlay on the object in question is in the common usage, whether or not it was for the use of a commoner or for the elite.

Warriors were carved with wings of the hawk or other birds, and beans and potatoes carved with legs and faces. There is an indication this was done for magic (Benson 1972: 20-22). Benson concurs that the duality themes is woven through Mochica art. animals, usually, the familiars, are anthropomorphized. The hawk and owl were often warriors. The hummingbird most frequently was a messenger, while the owl was never a messenger. Most deities were double fanged. (1972:34-52).

The conclusion of the paper involves clarifying the object in light of the collection of facts. Because the culture and the condor are both used in Mochica art, the object could be either one. However, because the condor is a member of the vulture family, either will suffice.

It has been shown that, although objects were carved of wood and stone, the Moche were proficient in the casting of bronze. However, because of the distinctive green color on the plate, it is more likely it is cast of copper. Many objects were inlaid with shell and precious stone as turquoise, and even gilded. It seems most likely that this object was inlaid with turquoise and shell.

It has been shown that many knives and other small cast objects have been found in graves as well as homes. It has been shown that the elite had the majority of those found, and because this object has also been inlaid, it is likely it was owned by someone of prestige. The vulture was used but not the most common of birds and this also indicates an elite purpose. There is also indication because the condor itself lived high in the mountains, it would be more rare of sight for the Moche people, and as a rarity would also concur that the elite would be in possession of its image.

A large head on the vulture can indicate an office, and it can also indicate a stylized form. This is not clearly enough evidence to declare either way, although both are possible. With much of the art reduced to a stylized form, even to a seemingly geometric form, the size of the head could be simply a similar style.

Whether or not mythology is part of the purpose in the usage of a vulture is a deeper question. There is too little supporting evidence of any specific myth in Moche even though there is some in South American culture in general. It is possible, but this paper will assume it is not likely.

If it is not a myth, would it be simply a decorative object? What is considered art today was not done to be decorative in the day of the Moche. There was purpose or what was done, whether for the dead, or for the living. Art was to communicate with the living or with the spirit world (Lujan: personal communication). A knife handle with a carved image on it therefore would indicate a purpose for its being there. And if mythology is not a likely purpose, it must come from tradition and superstition.


The Vulture in Pre-Columbian Incan Art of the Moche Culture Part 2

Vultures do appear on Moche pottery, in drawings and carvings. They also appear in other cultures both preceding and after the Moche. They show up in the rock engravings, apparently once having a symbolism, according to Bierhorst (1988:260) who states there can be little doubt as to the significance of certain figures as mask dancers. In the real mask dances the masks are believed to conjure the demons they represent; similarly, the painted figures are believed to permanently act as charms against the spirits. A common idea is that death brings a demon, and it must be dealt with. The belief that the departed reincarnate themselves in certain birds as well as other animals, is extremely common. The myths themselves being similar across the continent suggests contact among the peoples, even if very limited. The Moche had some contact with others around them (Reichert 1982:279).

Bierhorst continues (1988:200-213) that the people, living as they did by hunting, would take from the animal world as they were in intimate contact with them. most ornaments were purely practical charms against evil spirits and the occurrence of animal figures as ornaments is due to the common belief that the spirits assume the shape of animals. Primitive magic, namely the magic of names and the magic of images was common in animal dances with and without masks.

He continues that in animal dances not only images of fish and birds and lizards were used, but the birds were fashioned of wood and painted. They represented hummingbirds, swallows and the caracari vulture as well as the urubu vulture. Jones (1964:68) adds the Mochinca used symbols to show the properties of various creatures, often combining them to form a mythical entity. Here we find the jaguar, the cayman, the serpent, and the condor. The resulting compositions are hybrids which may be read in many different ways. It is one thing to show from what concrete patterns certain diagrammatic ornaments have been derived, another to assign the reason why they have been applied to different objects; to weapons, and implements, and to vessels (Karsten 1988:198).

Benson concurs that Mochica art was related to that of other northern coast groups, and several styles have been found; the pure early Mochica style is very creative, indicating an interaction among the groups in motifs as well as mythology (1972:15, 16).

In this forbidding land of rocky desolation, the Mochica artist applied his keen observation to all the animals that inhabited his world. Von Hagen continues that their art was unrivaled in all of the Americas. (1965:3).

Few other people in the history of the world have told us as much about themselves with their pottery as have the Mochica of Peru. They covered their pyramids and buildings with murals giving much insight into their lives: their ceremony, irrigation practices, metallurgy, musical instruments. They show realistic representations of battle, of sacrifice, the hunt, wildlife and plants and simply daily lives. (Benson 1972: book cover). Is it any wonder then that we can read through these their idea of the culture and what it meant to them.

The dry air preserved much of the Moche culture, leaving a rich legacy of artifacts. Stierlin observes the potters must have felt a keen interest in the animal world (1983:76), for their repertory includes serpents, birds and felines which served their environment, and served in some cases as their commons. He shows in plate 61 the same image of a vulture as the object in question. It is made of pottery in the form of a stirrup vessel; its body is a bit fuller; it lacks the inlay, but it is the same image. In Plate 61 is illustrated a stirrup-spouted vessel with a condor (Stierlin 1983:76). Another condor vessel is shown in Lapiner’s plate 266.

Although pottery constitutes the bulk of the Moche legacy, other objects are not uncommon. The Mochica were prolific with pottery, especially at the end of their era, giving a spirit of mass-produced quality. But they were also skilled in metals, both working in gold and in casting. Metal seemed to indicate status, as more has been found in elite homes than in those of the commoners, indicating use of metal was probably a status symbol (Earle 1987:98). In von Hagen’s work, he indicates that sheer masses of bronze knives, wedges, cutting tools and tupu pins that have been found in Moche and Chimu graves give testimony to the amazing amounts that were in use. He feels here again that the vast numbers indicate mass production. These include cast pieces as large as crowbars, and delicate small pieces the size of a thumbnail. (1965:83-4).

Carved bone has been found in the area; beautifully carved with small animals and figures on the handle tops of snuff spoons. Wooden staffs and agricultural implements are carved also with figures and animals on top (Docksteder 1967:plate 183, and Jones 1964:49,50). It is therefore not unusual at all to find the object in question carved so well and placed on the top of a knife.